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the temperature rise induced by electropulsing is found to be the combination of the result of thermal diffusion, ionic diffusion, and atomic diffusion, and their contributions are different for different microcracks. for a microcrack with width of 1 μm, thermal diffusion plays the major role (fig. 4(c)), whereas, for a microcrack with width of 10 μm, ionic diffusion plays the major role (fig. 4(d)). these findings suggest that the electropulsing with different pulse shapes could provide heat transfer, ion diffusion, and atomic diffusion to metals to trigger healing, and the contribution of these effects is different for different microcracks. in order to get the more clear understanding of the healing process, the temperature rise curves of the microcracks with different width and different pulse shapes at different time were studied. in general, a double exponential function is employed to fit the temperature rise curves. the results show that the time constant of the heat diffusion, the time constant of the ion diffusion, and the time constant of the atomic diffusion in the microcrack are 1.33, 0.67, and 0.89 ms, respectively, which are different for the different microcracks (see fig. 4(b) and fig. 4(e)). the maximum temperature rise (or the maximum temperature gradient) reached during the whole pulse process is about 2080 k (see fig. 4(c) and fig.
thermal diffusion is a heat transfer process in which heat is transferred from a region of high temperature to a region of low temperature, such as a microcrack heals a crack in a metal by inducing the atomic diffusion of the crack to the crack surfaces. the thermal diffusion coefficient k d (w m«2k-1) of a metal can be determined from the temperature rise curve of the metal sample with different thickness by the following equation: