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The extent to which crack use has become more prevalent within the African American community in recent decades is unknown. However, trends among African Americans were examined as a part of the 2004-2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which found that 0.8% of individuals identified as African American reported crack cocaine use in the past month, compared to about 6% of those who identified as white or Hispanic. Reported crack use among African Americans increased from 2002 to 2006, at the same time as increases in the overall drug abuse rate, from 13.6% to 19.5%.
Crack, however, has created a new niche market. With the introduction of crack cocaine’s far more potent effects, addicts were able to quickly transition from powder cocaine to crack, and poor crack users’ use quickly escalated, often resulting in a cycle of drug abuse and incarceration.
Often, men convicted for crack-related offenses were black, with a mean age of 26, typically spending less than two years in prison (93.6%), and having never married, (64.9%). Just over half of these men reported unemployment, and more than a third were arrested in their adolescent years. Approximately, 85% of these men reported using crack, with 37.5% reporting using crack on multiple occasions. More than two-thirds of the men reported using crack before the age of 21.
Crack use among drug users in their adolescent years tends to result in more severe drug abuse and criminal behavior than use beginning later in life. Further, prior crack use tended to result in longer prison sentences for crack cocaine offenses, again indicating that the crack experience can be more harmful than powder cocaine.
in practice, the issue of crack and powder cocaine remains largely controversial. cocaine is often made illegal when cocaine base (crack) is made from it, but courts often distinguish the two substances. categorization of illegal drugs has varied and has generally been influenced by political and social events. guidelines for drugs are reviewed and updated by a united nations group of experts. in 1997, the un experts organized a series of meetings to revise classification guidelines for these drugs.
the original guidelines for grouping the marihuana type substances were designed to distinguish the strengths of the different drug combinations. the intention of this system was to identify the particular toxic or psychological effects of particular types of cannabis, and to discriminate them from each other. in 1974, the un expert meeting on drugs was organized, which created the first global guidelines for the classification of illicit drugs. from the 11th meeting in 1977 until the 12th in 1986 in montreal, quebec, canada, the 11 groups were divided into 12 sub-groups. during the 13th meeting in 1996, the groups and sub-groups were rearranged into three groups based on their impact on human health and drug abuse.
the main goal of unodc is to determine the value and characteristics of drugs through an evaluation process. the criteria is set by law in the community of nations, and the unodc has a responsibility of providing quantitative data that can be used by law enforcement agencies and determine drug-related offences.
all un members have agreed to share information on drugs and the technical information to support drug control. the process requires a set of parameters and a group of experts (the technical advisory group) from different countries to classify the drugs.