Livro Medronho Epidemiologia Pdf 112 PATCHED 🔺
Livro Medronho Epidemiologia Pdf 112
the following are more recent textbooks on epidemiology: portugueses. introduction to epidemiology. toca da casa: livraria portuguesa do brasil ltda; 2008. pritchett (2005, p. 123)44. pritchett c, gourou m, rubel ja. epidemiologia. 5. ed. lisboa: anto. press; 2005. p. 89-98. emphasizes the importance of the methodology, and of the use of random samples in studies, including case reports, which is reflected in the classification of the text. case reports have the purpose of describing unusual or unexpected cases, as “ they seem to provide relevant information about the prevalence of a disease, and about etiology, so that they are of great practical use” (fletcher et al, 1996, p. 3).
the reference fletcher et al.1717. fletcher rh, fletcher sw, wagner eh. epidemiologia clnica: elementos essenciais. 3. ed. porto alegre: artes mdicas; 1996. only refers to case reports in the context of their function in helping to detect an outbreak, although it is clear that case reports can be used in other ways. a who publication listed two additional uses: measuring the frequency of events and describing non-fatal events. during the 1980s, ‘average’ case reports were published on a regular basis in brazil, e.g. these were usually based on criteria that were common to all ‘average’ case reports. this would usually be a large household or infant cohort that then had a group of cases published. the criteria was usually based on the rate of occurrence of the disease in the previous five to ten years, and it was normally from a single health unit (locality).
in the books we have reviewed, the majority of descriptive studies are based on secondary data, collected in their original state of aggregation, without any transformation. they must be presented as distribution curves, or as relative frequency tables (e.g. relative frequencies of the outcome by some risk factor or exposure). descriptive epidemiological studies are widely used in public health because they are cost-effective and quick to perform.
usually, the data used are those required to conduct the analysis (e.g. mortality data, hospitalization rates, incidence by place and type of disease). however, if the main purposes are to describe the phenomenon, the use of secondary data is allowed in some cases, especially if these are made available to the researcher, with the consent of the person collecting the data.
the choice of how to examine data is made by the researcher according to the purposes and questions asked. the fact that it is often secondary data is not always perceived as a difficulty, if there are clear strategies as to how to use them, including appropriate corrections to account for different information sources (e.g. the covariates).
some types of study may be restricted to certain subgroups of the population. for instance, case series and case studies may be applied to hospitalized patients (case study), or to those with specific diagnoses (case series). diagnostic suspicion (or eclampsia, for instance) is a cause of death that is particular to women, and therefore only they may be included in a study on maternal and fetal mortality. study of prevalence involves studying specific situations (e.g. alcoholism, smoking, violence) in the general population.